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- Acid etching
- To stain and to lustre
- (Sand) Blasting
- Decals for decoration

"Etching machines" at Swedish glassworks, an attempt to establish a time line

As far as we know, there are two types of "etching machines" which both have been usead by Swedish glassworks: the guilloché machine (which, we think, is the oldest type) and pantographs.

The two types differ in various points. One important difference is that the guilloché machine only handles one piece at at time, while pantographs can take several.
Their different constructions will also result in different types of patterns. (Read more about etching in general here, about the different pattern types here.)

When we have tried to find out which type (types) of machines were used where and when, we have met with several problems, one of them being the words themselves.
The first machine we worked with was the "panto-graving" machine from Pukeberg (read more about it here, in Swedish only).
Later, we have heard the same from other places: the guilloché machines were sometimes called that - a combination of "pantograph" and "engraving" machine.
We have two hand-written pattern books, having examples of both guilloché and pantographed patterns. Beside several of the typical guilloché patterns the worker has written the word "aquarell-apparatus".

Kaijser ( Anteckningar från Studier vid Reijmyre glasbruk) describes the workings of Reijmyre in detail. There is one chapter about etching. After he has described the waxing process, he goes on to:

"   The glasses [...] are carried to the etching machine.
c) Such a machine is called "gilloscheringsmaskin".
At Reujmyre there are 6 of them. They are equipped with an inner moveable part, in which the glass is placed and where it is turned and can be raised and lowered.
From the side there comes an arm (by one handle made to turn in certain directions up and down and sideways) to make different patterns. The actual etching, which is accompliced by the wax being scratched from the glass, is done by a different number of needles depending on different patterns. Ordinary sewing needles are used at Reijmyre, bent and attached by elastics. Or there are special needles for this machine, but they are both more expensive and less durable, as they are made from looser material (bought from abroad). The holder in which the needles are fastened is usually called a comb.    "

(my translation; the transcription is at the bottom of the list of sources)
needle holder for a guilloché machine

Kaijser's notebook has a subtitle: "written on August 12 - 23 1919 (and other occasions)". His notes are very detailed, and they clearly state that Reijmyre had 6 guilloché machines. To me, it seems impossible that Kaijser could have missed the fact that there was also a very big pantograph, with 36 places, which can be read abot in the book Reijmyre 200 år. It is of course possible that the pantograph was aquired later. Kaijser was a "trainee" at the time. He was made manager in 1923, and remained so until 1926, when Reijmyre was closed down.

In the book Glas från Eda it is said that, when Reijmyre was closed down, "press moulds, pantograph an etching machines were moved to Eda" – here we have two words: "pantograph" and "etching machine", used as if they were two different kinds of machines. Is etching machine (here) a synonym to a guilloché machine?

Attempt at a time line for "etching machines" in Sweden:
Occurrence Reference Comment
1880 Reijmyre buys the first "etching apparatus" in Sweden Nisbeth - Fogelberg Reijmyre glasbruk (from J Fougner & Cie in Paris)
Reijmyre buys the first pantograph in Sweden - a 36-piece machine Reijmyre 200 år (from France)
Reijmyre buys "Pantograph" Boken om Rejmyre (Pantograf in quotes, and capital P)
beginning of 1880-ies Eda is offered a patent for glass etching (they do not buy) Fogelberg - Lersjö Eda glasbruk (from a man named Engelbrekt in Stockholm)
1890-ies Eda uses guilloché machine Eda glasbruk may be a general statement: "In the 1890-ies etching was done with a so called guilloché machine."
1894 Kosta buys an "English machine" for etching sign at Ekeberga hembygdsmuseum (local historic museum) compare Steenberg in Modernt svenskt glas
1890-ies Kosta produces pantographed restaurant glasses Steenberg in Modernt svenskt glas (the book has a photo of glasses for Hotel Cecil, London - BGM has the template. See pictures below.)
1897 Eda buys a guilloché machine from Pfortzheim Eda glasbruk;
also an inventory list
inventory gives a price: 1 850 kr
1897 Kosta buys a guilloché machine from Hamburg Eric Karlsson, binder via B Karlsson, Kosta price 2 000 kr
1898 template for IX Deutsches Turnfest Hamburg 23 - 27 Juli 1898 BGM has the template - were the glasses produced by Kosta?
1902 Eda were offered a guilloché machine från Bühler Eda glasbruk star apparatus, three-point "excenterschieber" and adapter for dishes were included (what do these accessories do?)
1905 Kosta buys a guilloché machine from Eda E Karlsson binder via B Karlsson, Kosta price 1 500 kr
1907 Kosta buys a German pantograph sign at Ekeberga hembygdsmuseum can these be guilloché machines? There were (at least) 2 big and one small machine
compare information from E Karlsson below
1910 Kosta gets yet another German pantograph sign at Ekeberga hembygdsmuseum
Kosta buys a pantograph with 28 "needle holders" (Germany not mentioned) E Karlsson, binder, via B Karlsson, Kosta price 8 672 kr
(Kosta sells 2 etching machines to Alsterfors) Thus, Alsterfors, too, had "etching machines", but what are they?
1911 (Kosta: in the books there are clichés and pantograph templates worth 5 000 kr)
1912 Sandvik: Oscar Franzén began working there Glas, kultur, sammhällsdaning p 30: "There was much etching done, and the acid used was emptied outside the door."
1913 Sandvik "before the war [...] various plain, cut and etched glass in semi-crystal. As the etching was not profitable, [Edvard Strömberg] decided to abandon etching during the autumn of 1913." Fogelberg: Glasteknisk tidskrift 1990:3
1914 Orrefors owned 2 etching machines which were used "for a couple of years"
(a few pages later Hellner mentions "engraving and etching" during 1916)
Kärlek till glas p 38: Eugen Bergqvist (nephew of Knut) operated them, was also responsible for transfer etching. After they were "put aside […] etching has not been used as a means of decoration at Orrefors since then"

(Orreforsaren i Glasriket mentions an etcher called Heinrich Wollman, working at O during 1914-23)
1917 Kosta buys an etching machine from Reijmyre E Karlsson, binder, via B Karlsson, Kosta
1919 Reijmyre has 6 "gilloscheringsmaskiner", nothing said about pantograph Anteckningar från ... Reijmyre.. (so when did the pantograph arrive at Reijmyre?)
1920-ies Åfors have "etchers doing both transfer and machine etching" I skenet från en glasugn
1921 Orrefors "dept Sandvik"
Price list for table-glass of soda quality
"etched keys and border" (meander pattern) on 5 sizes of stemware;
"etched circles" on 5 sizes of stemware
Blue binder at the association Glas i Hovmantorp, photocopy of a price list printed 1921 This means there were guilloché machine(s?) at Sandvik in 1921

(Sandvik became part of Orrefors in 1917, was bought in 1918)
1924 Orrefors "avd Sandvik"
Copy of a price list for Pall Mall (in English), dated 12/3 1924 (date handwritten)
(note by another hand: expired 1/8 26.)
Blue binder at GiH, photocopy of a typewritten price list  
1926 Reijmyre is closed down:
    9 June the hot shop is closed the timetable comes from the foreword to Anteckningar från ... Reijmyre.., written by Fogelberg
15 July the heating, cracking-off and edge-melting workshops close
24 July the crystal cutting shop closes
31 July the pantograph workshop is closed
18 August the etching workshop is closed
October the stamping and egngraving shops close
"after that" only the service Pall Mall is "processed", with blanks blown at Eda as Pall Mall is both cut and etched - HOW?
1926 Eda gets a pantograph and etching machines from Reijmyre (also the making of Pall Mall) Lersjö: Glas från Eda
1926 Pukeberg buys a German pantograph for 12 glasses Pukeberg
1926 (Mr Venon suggests that Pukeberg buy the Reijmyre pantograph) Pukeberg (Venon was the agent for several Swedish glassworks, for the USA market)
1927 Alsterbro buys an "automatic etching machine" Scheutz - Fogelberg: Alsterbro glasbruk ("[…] the manager wished to buy […] automatic etching machine […] The proposal was approved by the board of Kristallbolaget.") (my translation)
1928 Ekenäs made etched vases for king Gustaf V:s 70th birthday Ekenäs: vi som försvann... sid 35
 ?? Elme sold etched services, among them "Tip Top" Personal ommunication from BAY Åkerblom Probably (?) in conjuction with Ollers association with Elme
around 1930 Alsterfors take on etchers from Eda and Reijmyre Ett glasrike i Glasriket: Älghults socken sid 31 (nothing mentioned about machines)
1930 Eda takes part in the Stockholm exhibition, showing service "Bero" Glas från Eda BGM has the template (see pictures here)
undated Kosta sells a service "Bero" catalogue for Kosta, read on the 'net
"during the war" Ekenäs etches, both deep etching and matt etching Ekenäs: vi som försvann... "[…] I still own old steel templates […export…] all over the world […]"
(nothing mentioned about machines)
1947 Boda: Erik Rosén is hired
(legendary glass-man to be)
Generationers arbete på Boda Glasbruk "Post-production was advanced here: we had a big cutting shop, engravers, etching shop and painting shop."

According to The Glass Factory, the only etching done in Boda was transfer etching.
1961 newspaper clipping with photo from Målerås: "Henning Ohlsson at work with the pantograph" (Smålandsposten or Barometern) According to Mats Jonasson, that pantograph was later melted down and made into blow-moulds. (MJ took over after Kosta in 1981 - did it happen after that?)
1970? Smålands museum is gifted a pantograph from Åfors (a 24-piece, similar, but not quite the same, as ours)
1980-ies, before 1985 Kosta ends their pantographing the latest glasses were "St Erik" for Stockholm City (see picture below)
? Skruf had guilloché machine(s?), but when? Told by Hasse Karlsson (who also told that, at least once, hydrofluoric acid was dumped in an open ditch)
2015 (BGM has a template marked JOHAN FRÖBERG FINSPONG - can that one be from Reijmyre?)
2015 (BGM has two handwritten pattern books, undated, one written by Einar Petersson. The other one is often mentioning the "aqvarellapparaten" when showing guilloché patterns)
2015 Personal communication: a similar pattern book from Orrefors was given to Smålands museum during ... 1980-ies?  

  • Kaijser: Anteckningar från Studier vid Reijmyre glasbruk, a facsimile of the handwritten notes by Kaijser. It also has a foreword written by Torbjörn Fogelberg. Växjö, Smålands museum 1990, ISBN 91-87674-03-3
  • Nisbeth – Fogelberg: Reijmyre glasbruk, Linköping 1960 (no ISBN)
  • Boken om Reijmyre del 1 (tiden före 1926), Finspång 1995, ISBN 91-971183-2-X
  • Reijmyre glasbruk – formgivare, konstnärer och yrkesmän under 200 år, utgiven av Östergötlands länsmuseum 2010, ISBN 9789185908844
  • Fogelberg – Lersjö: Eda glasbruk, Karlstad, Värmlands museum 1977, ISBN 91-8522-408-1
  • Lersjö: Glas från Eda, Arvika 1997, ISBN 91-630-5639-9
  • Pukebergs glasbruk 1871 – 1946 Minnesskrift. Stockholm 1946 (inget ISBN)
  • Scheutz - Fogelberg: Alsterbro glasbruk, Kalmar 1980, ISBN 91-85926-00-0
  • Modernt svenskt glas, kapitlet om servsiglasets modellförändringar av Steenberg, Stockholm 1943 (no ISBN)
  • Kärlek till glas, Agnes Hellners samling av orreforsglas / A love of glass (bi-lingual) Raster förlag 1998, ISBN 91-87214-814
  • Fogelberg: series of articles in Glasteknisk tidskrift, 1990
  • Glasriket: Människan Miljön Framtiden - a series of books published by ABF in the early 1980-ies, no ISBN.
    • Ekenäs: vi som försvann...
    • Ett glasrike i Glasriket: Älghults socken
    • Generationers arbete på Boda Glasbruk
    • Glas, kultur, sammhällsdaning
    • I skenet från en glasugn
    • Orreforsaren i glasriket

Transcription from Kaijser:
"   Glasen [...] bäras till etsnings maskinen.
c) En dylik kallas "gilloscheringsmaskin".
Vid Reijmyre finnes 6 st. dylika. De är försedda med en inre rörlig del, i hvilket glaset ställes och där det snurras rundt samt kan höjas eller sänkas.
Från sidan införes så mot glaset en arm (genom ett handtag eller vef rörlig i vissa riktningar upp och ned samt i sidled) så att olika mönster kan åstadkommas. Själfa etsningen, som består i att vaxet rispas bort från glaset, sker genom olika antal nålar allt efter olika mönster. Vid Reijmyre användes vanliga synålar, krökta och fastsatta med gummisnoddar. Eljes kan man ock köpa särskildt härför afsedda nålar, men de blifva dels dyrare dels hålla de ej så länge, emedan de äro af lösare material (köpas utomlands). Det munstycke, i hvilket nålarne äro fästade, kallas vanligen kamm.    "

Template for hotel Cecil
photo from "Modernt svenskt glas"

template for St Erik, glass with 4 motive copies around
"proof" of Pall Mall being made by Orrefors/Sandvik