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- Acid etching
- To stain and to lustre
- (Sand) Blasting
- Decals for decoration




"Etching machines" at Swedish glassworks, an attempt to establish a time line

As far as we know, there are two types of "etching machines" which both have been used by Swedish glassworks: the guilloché machine (which, we think, is the oldest type) and pantographs.

The two types differ in various points. One important difference is that the guilloché machine only handles few glasses at at time, while pantographs can take several - between 12 and 36.
Their different constructions will also result in different types of patterns. (Read more about etching in general here, about the different pattern types here.)

When we have tried to find out which type (types) of machines were used where and when, we have met with several problems, one of them being the words themselves.
The first machine we worked with was the "panto-graving" machine from Pukeberg (read more about it here, in Swedish only).
Later, we have heard the same from other places: the guilloché machines were sometimes called that - a combination of "pantograph" and "engraving" machine.
We have two hand-written pattern books, having examples of both guilloché and pantographed patterns. Beside several of the typical guilloché patterns the worker has written the word "aquarell-apparatus".

Kaijser ( Anteckningar från Studier vid Reijmyre glasbruk) describes the workings of Reijmyre in detail. There is one chapter about etching. After he has described the waxing process, he goes on to:

"   The glasses [...] are carried to the etching machine.
c) Such a machine is called "gilloscheringsmaskin".
At Reijmyre there are 6 of them. They are equipped with an inner moveable part, in which the glass is placed and where it is turned and can be raised and lowered.
From the side there comes an arm (by one handle made to turn in certain directions up and down and sideways) to make different patterns. The actual etching, which is accompliced by the wax being scratched from the glass, is done by a different number of needles depending on different patterns. Ordinary sewing needles are used at Reijmyre, bent and attached by rubber bands. Or there are special needles for this machine, but they are both more expensive and less durable, as they are made from looser material (bought from abroad). The holder in which the needles are fastened is usually called a comb.    "

(my translation; the transcription is at the bottom of the list of sources)
needle holder for a guilloché machine

Kaijser's notebook has a subtitle: "written on August 12 - 23 1919 (and other occasions)". His notes are very detailed, and they clearly state that Reijmyre had 6 guilloché machines. To me, it seems impossible that Kaijser could have missed the fact that there was also a very big pantograph, with 36 places, which can be read abot in the book Reijmyre 200 år. According to the following Reijmyre had two pantographs by this time.
Kaijser was a "trainee" at the time. He was made manager in 1923, and remained so until 1926, when Reijmyre was closed down.

In the book Glas från Eda it is said that, when Reijmyre was closed down, "press moulds, pantograph and etching machines were moved to Eda" – here we have two words: "pantograph" and "etching machine", used as if they were two different kinds of machines. Is etching machine (here) a synonym to a guilloché machine?

Attempt at a time line for "etching machines" in Sweden:
Occurrence Reference Comment
1880 Reijmyre buys the first "etching apparatus" in Sweden Nisbeth - Fogelberg Reijmyre glasbruk p 51: from J Fougner & Cie in Paris
Reijmyre buys the first pantograph in Sweden - a 36-piece machine Reijmyre 200 år from France
Reijmyre buys "Pantograph" Boken om Rejmyre (Pantograf in quotes, and capital P)
beginning of 1880-ies Eda is offered a patent for glass etching (they do not buy) Fogelberg - Lersjö Eda glasbruk (from a man named Engelbrekt in Stockholm)
1890-ies Eda uses guilloché machine Eda glasbruk may be a general statement: "In the 1890-ies etching was done with a so called guilloché machine."
1892 – ca 1920 Flerohopp produced lots of glass suites (note: after 1920 they specialized in making bulbs, the glass pieces of electrical bulbs) Flerohopps glasbruk 1892-1942 pantographed from Flerohopp at Digitalt museum
1894 Kosta buys an "English machine" for etching sign at Ekeberga hembygdsmuseum (local historic museum) compare Steenberg in Modernt svenskt glas
1896 – 1917 the total lifespan of Färe glassworks
(1917 Färe was incorporated in the newly started Elmeverken)
pantographed Färe glasses at Digitalt museum in the glass storage of Kulturarvscentrum, Växjö there are also guilloché glass from Färe
1890-ies Kosta produces pantographed restaurant glasses Steenberg in Modernt svenskt glas the book has a photo of glasses for Hotel Cecil, London - BGM has the template. See pictures below.
There are British glass historians who doubt the dating - it ought to be later.
1897 Eda buys a guilloché machine from Pfortzheim Eda glasbruk;
also supported by an inventory list
inventory list gives a value: 1 850 SEK
The same list also mentions a "printing press for etching", at a value of 117 SEK.
1897 Kosta buys a guilloché machine from Hamburg Eric Karlsson, binder via B Karlsson, Kosta price 2 000 kr
1898 template for IX Deutsches Turnfest Hamburg 23 - 27 Juli 1898 BGM has the template - were the glasses produced by Kosta?
Ca 1900 – 20? 30? Johansfors:
"[production of crystal glass] came to be very big, with decoration, cutting, engraving, taille gravure and etching"
Liv och arbete under 90 år vid Johansfors sid 23
(part of series Glasriket: Människan Miljön Framtiden
Nothing more about etching, neither method nor machines
Service "Bjälbo" at Digitalt museum
1902 Eda were offered a guilloché machine från Bühler Eda glasbruk star apparatus, three-point "excenterschieber" and adapter for dishes were included (what do these accessories do?)
1905 Kosta buys a guilloché machine from Eda E Karlsson binder via B Karlsson, Kosta price 1 500 kr
1907 Kosta buys a German pantograph sign at Ekeberga hembygdsmuseum;
supported by E Karlsson (no mention of Germany) via B Karlsson
1910 Kosta gets yet another German pantograph sign at Ekeberga hembygdsmuseum
Kosta buys a pantograph with 28 "needle holders" (Germany not mentioned) E Karlsson, binder, via B Karlsson, Kosta price 8 672 kr
(Kosta sells 2 etching machines to Alsterfors) From Alsterfors at Digitalt museum - we regard these glasses as guilloché.
This glass looks like deep etched, which might indicate the existence of a pantograph.
1910 Reijmyre buys a pantograph and two new "etching machines" Reijmyre glasbruk, sid 53
1911 (Kosta: in the books there are clichés and pantograph templates worth 5 000 kr) E Karlsson, binder, via B Karlsson, Kosta
1912 Sandvik: Oscar Franzén began working there Glas, kultur, sammhällsdaning p 30: "There was much etching done, and the acid used was emptied outside the door."
1913 Sandvik "before the war [...] various plain, cut and etched glass in semi-crystal. As the etching was not profitable, [Edvard Strömberg] decided to abandon etching during the autumn of 1913." Fogelberg: Glasteknisk tidskrift 1990:3 compare below 1919, 1921

One guilloché example found at Digitalt museum. The production year is given as 1910
1914 Pukeberg shows "wine glasses […] guilloché technique" at "The Baltic exhibition", Malmö Krantz, Den småländska glasregionens uppgång och fall: en ekonomisk historia, p 98 compare our renovation of a "panto-graving machine" which was said to come from Pukeberg. Beside the machine was mounted a page from the 1910 catalogue from the Kutzscher company. (That machine doesn't have any maker's sign)
1914 Orrefors owned 2 etching machines which were used "for a couple of years"
(a few pages later Hellner mentions "engraving and etching" during 1916)
Kärlek till glas p 38: Eugen Bergqvist (nephew of Knut) operated them, was also responsible for transfer etching. After they were "put aside […] etching has not been used as a means of decoration at Orrefors since then"

(Orreforsaren i Glasriket mentions an etcher called Heinrich Wollman, working at O during 1914-23)
1917 Elme glassworks is started, makes Färe a subsidiary.
At the end of the 20ies Ollers gets to Elme
Elme : glimtar från utställningen om Elme glasbruk på kulturhuset Blohmé i april 1997 Notes found at Digitalt museum (no pictures 180426)
In the storage there are also guilloché glasses
1917 Kosta buys an etching machine from Reijmyre E Karlsson, binder, via B Karlsson, Kosta
1919 Sandvik produces Pall Mall Glas, kultur, samhällsdaning, p 43 (compare above 1913, below 1921)
1919 Reijmyre has 6 "gilloscheringsmaskiner", nothing said about pantograph Anteckningar från ... Reijmyre.. Kaijser doesn't mention pantographs – as seen above Reijmyre should have two (1880 & 1910)
1920-ies Åfors have "etchers doing both transfer and machine etching" I skenet från en glasugn Åfors had a "panto-graving machine" and a pantograph (later donated to Kulturarvscentrum)
1921 Orrefors "dept Sandvik"
Price list for table-glass of soda quality
"etched keys and border" (meander pattern) on 5 sizes of stemware;
"etched circles" on 5 sizes of stemware
Blue binder at the association Glas i Hovmantorp, photocopy of a price list printed 1921 (compare above 1913, 1919)

(Sandvik became part of Orrefors in 1917, was bought in 1918)
1924 Orrefors "avd Sandvik"
Copy of a price list for Pall Mall (in English), dated 12/3 1924 (date handwritten)
(note by another hand: expired 1/8 26.)
Blue binder at GiH, photocopy of a typewritten price list  
1926 Reijmyre is closed down:
    9 June the hot shop is closed the timetable comes from the foreword to Anteckningar från ... Reijmyre.., written by Fogelberg
15 July the heating, cracking-off and edge-melting workshops close
24 July the crystal cutting shop closes
31 July the pantograph workshop is closed
18 August the etching workshop is closed
October the stamping and egngraving shops close
"after that" only the service Pall Mall is "processed", with blanks blown at Eda as Pall Mall is both cut and etched - HOW?
1926 Eda gets a pantograph and etching machines from Reijmyre (also the making of Pall Mall) Lersjö: Glas från Eda Despite the non-mention of pantograph(s) by Kaijser, at least there was one. Maybe the Venon suggestion (below) indicates the existence of two.
1926 Pukeberg buys a German pantograph for 12 glasses Pukebergs glasbruk 75 år
(Mr Venon suggests that Pukeberg buy the Reijmyre pantograph) (Venon was the agent for several Swedish glassworks, for the USA market)
1927 Alsterbro buys an "automatic etching machine" Scheutz - Fogelberg: Alsterbro glasbruk ("[…] the manager wished to buy […] automatic etching machine […] The proposal was approved by the board of Kristallbolaget.") (my translation)
1928 Ekenäs made etched vases for king Gustaf V:s 70th birthday Ekenäs: vi som försvann... sid 35
around 1930 Alsterfors take on etchers from Eda and Reijmyre Ett glasrike i Glasriket: Älghults socken sid 31 (nothing mentioned about machines)
1930 Eda takes part in the Stockholm exhibition, showing service "Bero" Glas från Eda BGM has the template (see pictures here)
later Kosta sells the same service "Bero" several Kosta catlogues from the 1930ies and 40ies
1937 Trelleborgs glasindustri: Knut Harald Heintze (from Kosta) is employed as an etcher Fogelberg-Scheutz: Trelleborgs glasindustri 1919-1955 On p 39 it is mentioned that a pantograph existed at the benkrupcy; on p 88 it is told that "big vases […] a machine drew the patterns."
"during the war" Ekenäs etches, both deep etching and matt etching Ekenäs: vi som försvann...
At a visit in Oct '17 we were told that there was never a pantograph
"[…] I still own old steel templates […export…] all over the world […]"
(nothing mentioned about machines)
1946 Skruv burned down Ljuders hembygdsbok 2007 The etching shop, housed in a wooden building east of the hot shop, did not burn.
1947 Boda: Erik Rosén is hired
(legendary glass-man to be)
Generationers arbete på Boda Glasbruk "Post-production was advanced here: we had a big cutting shop, engravers, etching shop and painting shop."

According to The Glass Factory, the only etching done in Boda was transfer etching.
1958 Pukeberg participated in the exhibition "Tre glasbruk" (Three glassworks) Göran Wärff's series "Himmel och helvete" (Heaven and hell) at Digitalt museum these may be the last newly designed pantographed glasses in Sweden?
1961 newspaper clipping with photo from Målerås: "Henning Ohlsson at work with the pantograph" (Smålandsposten or Barometern) According to Mats Jonasson, that pantograph was later melted down and made into blow-moulds. (MJ took over after Kosta in 1981 - did it happen after that?)
after 1965 "Flygsforsgruppen", consisting of Flygsfors, Målerås and Gadderås, in existence 1965-1974 Folke Walwing makes guilloché grog glasses, at Digitalt museum the glasses can have been produced at any of the places
1970? Smålands museum is gifted a pantograph from Åfors (a 24-piece, similar, but not quite the same, as ours) Can be found at Digitalt museum according to that entry it did not enter the museum until 1995 - that does not match other information we have been given
1974 reportage on pantographing at Kosta company internal magazine Mängen 1974:2; read it here. note: this reportage is about the horizontal pantograph we have here at BGM
1980-ies, before 1985 Kosta ends their pantographing the latest glasses were "St Erik" for Stockholm City (see picture below)
? Skruf had guilloché machine(s?), but when? Told by Hasse Karlsson (who also told that, at least once, hydrofluoric acid was dumped in an open ditch)
2015 (BGM has a template marked JOHAN FRÖBERG FINSPONG - can that one be from Reijmyre?) (The firm, now called Fröbergs stämplar, still exists in Finspång. They do not recognize making templates for Reijmyre)
2015 (BGM has two handwritten pattern books, undated, one written by Einar Petersson. The other one is often mentioning the "aqvarellapparaten" when showing guilloché patterns) (It has been confirmed that Einar Petersson was an etcher at Kosta from 1930ies on)
2015 Personal communication: a similar pattern book from Orrefors was given to Smålands museum during ... 1980-ies? (see above 1914. Sandvik became part of Orrefors 1917, so they can be from there)
2015 BGM is given a horizontal pantograph for 24 glasses donation from AB Kosta glasbruk
2017 BGM gets a vertical pantograph for 12 glasses The machines were found in the old storehouse called "Långholmen" in Kosta.
They were donated to BGM from AB Kosta glasbruk.

We have heard that several belongings of Svenska Kristallglasbruken were stored here - which might mean that our machines could have been used at several glassworks
BGM gets a Kutzscher guilloché machine, model Jupiter (for one glass) (all cogwheels in multiples of 5 and 0)
BGM gets an anonymous guilloché machine for one glass (with this machine the cogwheels have different multiples, compatible with the recipes in the pattern books mentioned above, such as Joel, Lina)


Sources:
  • Kaijser: Anteckningar från Studier vid Reijmyre glasbruk, a facsimile of the handwritten notes by Kaijser. It also has a foreword written by Torbjörn Fogelberg. Växjö, Smålands museum 1990, ISBN 91-87674-03-3
  • Nisbeth – Fogelberg: Reijmyre glasbruk, Linköping 1960 (no ISBN)
  • Boken om Reijmyre del 1 (tiden före 1926), Finspång 1995, ISBN 91-971183-2-X
  • Reijmyre glasbruk – formgivare, konstnärer och yrkesmän under 200 år, utgiven av Östergötlands länsmuseum 2010, ISBN 9789185908844
  • Fogelberg – Lersjö: Eda glasbruk, Karlstad, Värmlands museum 1977, ISBN 91-8522-408-1
  • Flerohopps glasbruk 1892-1942, Stockholm 1942 (inget ISBN)
  • Modernt svenskt glas, kapitlet om servsiglasets modellförändringar av Steenberg, Stockholm 1943 (inget ISBN)
  • Fogelberg: artikelserie i Glasteknisk tidskrift, 1990, ISSN 0017-1093
  • Krantz: Den småländska glasregionens uppgång och fall
  • Kärlek till glas, Agnes Hellners samling av orreforsglas, Raster förlag 1998, ISBN 91-87214-814
  • Elme : glimtar från utställningen om Elme glasbruk på kulturhuset Blohmé i april 1997, inget ISBN
  • Lersjö: Glas från Eda, Arvika 1997, ISBN 91-630-5639-9
  • Pukebergs glasbruk 1871 – 1946 Minnesskrift. Stockholm 1946 (inget ISBN)
  • Scheutz - Fogelberg: Alsterbro glasbruk, Kalmar 1980, ISBN 91-85926-00-0
  • Fogelberg-Scheutz: Trelleborgs glasindustri 1919-1955 och Skånska glasbruket 1955-1957 : Sveriges sydligaste glasbruk, Trelleborgs museum 1988, ISBN 91-971142-0-0
  • Ljuders hembygdsbok 2007, ISSN 1654-4110
  • Glasriket: Människan Miljön Framtiden - a series of books published by ABF in the early 1980-ies, no ISBN.
    • Ekenäs: vi som försvann...
    • Ett glasrike i Glasriket: Älghults socken
    • Generationers arbete på Boda Glasbruk
    • Glas, kultur, sammhällsdaning
    • I skenet från en glasugn
    • Liv och arbete under 90 år vid Johansfors glasbruk
    • Orreforsaren i glasriket
  • company internal magazine Mängen

Transcription from Kaijser:
"   Glasen [...] bäras till etsnings maskinen.
c) En dylik kallas "gilloscheringsmaskin".
Vid Reijmyre finnes 6 st. dylika. De är försedda med en inre rörlig del, i hvilket glaset ställes och där det snurras rundt samt kan höjas eller sänkas.
Från sidan införes så mot glaset en arm (genom ett handtag eller vef rörlig i vissa riktningar upp och ned samt i sidled) så att olika mönster kan åstadkommas. Själfa etsningen, som består i att vaxet rispas bort från glaset, sker genom olika antal nålar allt efter olika mönster. Vid Reijmyre användes vanliga synålar, krökta och fastsatta med gummisnoddar. Eljes kan man ock köpa särskildt härför afsedda nålar, men de blifva dels dyrare dels hålla de ej så länge, emedan de äro af lösare material (köpas utomlands). Det munstycke, i hvilket nålarne äro fästade, kallas vanligen kamm.    "


Template for hotel Cecil
photo from "Modernt svenskt glas"





template for St Erik, glass with 4 motive copies around
"proof" of Pall Mall being made by Orrefors/Sandvik